12/28/2014

- Kaido Roads in Japan -

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Kaidoo: The Ancient Roads of Japan
日本の街道


Japan developed a nationwide network of roads and highways already in the 7th century to carry things on foot, horseback, and wheeled traffic and to transport goods between towns and villages. The major roads, called kaido, started from the capital in Kyoto.

There were seven major roads. The most important ones ones were the westbound route from Kyoto, the Sanyodo, and the eastbound route to Edo, the Tokaido. These historical names have been preserved in the names of major railway lines and modern highways.

In due time lodgings for travelers along these highways grew into towns which served their local specialities and sold souveniers.
Some routes with easier access, avoiding steep passes through the mountains, came into being, as travelling and pilgrimages became more popular. But the construction of bridges and operation of ferries across some rivers were prohibited for reasons of military defense, and travelers were carried over on the shoulders of porters or in palanquins.
During heavy rainfall, crossing these rivers was too dangerous and travellers had to stay in lodgings, enjoying the "rice serving girls", or all kinds of gambling.



Kaido Walking ”街道ウオーキング”
Some roads were famous for transporting food or salt to Kyoto and other cities.

The old kaido roads enjoy a revival these days, with people walking them again, taking photos and exchanging information in many BLOGS.


Travelling with Matsuo Basho
. Oku no Hosomichi 2007  


. Kaido Ancient Roads - Yokai and Yurei
街道の妖怪 - 幽霊 .



It will take some time
to introduce these roads in more detail.

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okan 往還 main road

kaidoo かいどう【海道】sea road

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Gokishichidoo 五畿七道 goki shichido
lit. five provinces and seven circuits
was the name for ancient administrative units organized in Japan during the Asuka Period (AD 538–710), as part of a legal and governmental system borrowed from the Chinese.
Though these units did not survive as administrative structures beyond the Muromachi Period (1336–1573), they did remain important geographical entities up until the 19th century. The Gokishichidō consisted of five provinces in the Kinai (畿内) or capital region, plus seven dō (道) or circuits, each of which contained provinces of its own.
The seven dō or circuits
were administrative areas stretching away from the Kinai region in different directions. Running through each of the seven areas was an actual road of the same name, connecting the imperial capital with all of the provincial capitals along its route.

Tōkaidō (running east along Japan's Pacific coast).
Tōsandō (northeast through the Japanese Alps).
Hokurikudō (northeast along the Sea of Japan coast).
San'indō (west along the Sea of Japan coast).
San'yōdō (west along the northern side of the Seto Inland Sea).
Nankaidō (south to the Kii Peninsula and the islands of Awaji and Shikoku).
Saikaidō (the “western” island, Kyūshū).

© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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. Hime Kaido 姫街道 princess routes .
Hime kaidō, Hime Kaidoo
the name given to minor routes that created detours around the difficult crossings (or river crossings) of main routes during the Edo period in Japan. These routes could be found on many of the Edo Five Routes, as well as on other sub-routes that crossed the country.

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. Michinoku, Mutsu 陸奥 region in Tohoku .

みちのく路 Michinoku Roads

. Nikkoo Kaidoo 日光街道 Nikko Kaido .
日光例幣使街道 Nikko Reiheishi Kaido
御成道 Onarimichi Onari Michi for the Shogun only

. 会津街道 Aizu Kaido .
Aizu Nishi Kaido 会津西街道 
Echigo Kaido 越後街道

奥州街道 Oshu Kaido
陸前浜街道 Rikuzen Hamakaido
石巻街道 Ishinomaki Kaido
遠野・釜石街道 Tono Kaido Kamaishi Kaido
宮古街道 Miyako Kaido
小本街道 Omoto Kaido
野田・沼宮内街道 Noda Kaido - Numakunai Kaido
七ケ宿街道 Shichigashuku Kaido
羽州街道 Ushu Kaido
笹谷街道 Sasaya Kaido
六十里越街道 Rokujuurigoe Kaido
秋田街道 Akita Kaido
津軽街道 Tsugaru Kaido

Sendaidoo 仙台道 Sendaidō, Sendaido
Ooyama kaidoo 大山街道 Ōyama Kaidō, Oyama Kaido

Toosandoo 東山道 Tosando, Tōsandō
"Eastern Mountain Roads" "Higashiyama no michi"
to eight provinces in the North in Tohoku.
It leads through the Northern Alpes.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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..常総 -武甲 Joosoo . Fukoo

水戸街道 Mito Kaido - Mito Kaidō
成田道 Naritado
川越街道 Kawagoe Kaido - Kawagoe Kodama Kaidō
青梅街道 Ome Kaido
五日市街道 Itsukaichi Kaido
甲州道中 Kooshuu Doochuu


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..東海・中部 Tokai and Chubu - Kantoo 関東 


. Tokaido 53 Stations 東海道五十三次 Tookaidoo  

. Hime Kaido 姫街道 princess route .
... Waki Kaido 脇街道 side route


. 鎌倉街道 Kamakura Kaido .  

下田街道 Shimoda Kaido
身延道 Minobu michi
伊那街道 Ina Kaido
伊勢路 Ise ji
美濃路 Mino ji

. Nakasendoo 中山道 Nakasendo Road .
Azuma Kaido 東街道
- - - small side roads along the Nakasendo, mostly used by horse transport or on foot to carry salt to inland
sanshuu kaidoo 三州街道 Sanshu Kaido. Kaido of three provinces
..... (Ina Kaido 伊那街道)
chuuma no michi 中馬のみち "road for transport horses"


秩父往還 Chichibu Okan - Chichibu Ōkan
佐久甲州街道 Saku Koshu Kaido - Kooshuu Kaidoo

浜街道 Hama Kaido (kinu no michi 絹の道 silk road)
- from Hachioji to Yokohama 八王子市八日町

Toogane Onari Kaidoo東金御成街道 Tōgane Onari Kaidō
In Chiba prefecture, former Boosoo 房総往還 Boso Okan
leading to Togane Goten 東金御殿, a hunting ground of the Tokugawa Shoguns.


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Edo Gokaidoo 江戸五街道 Edo Gokaido, Gokaidō - Edo Five Ruotes
Five Kaido starting at Nihonbashi, Edo


. Koshu Kaido 甲州街道 Kōshū Kaidō .
Nakasendo 中山道 . 中仙道 Nakasendō
Nikko Kaido 日光街道 Nikkō Kaidō
Oshu Kaido 奥州街道 Ōshū Kaidō
Tokaido 東海道 Tōkaidō
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !



. Three famous barrieres (sankan 三関) checkpoints
leading out of - into Kyoto:

Ise no Suzuka 伊勢の鈴鹿(すずか)
Mino no Fuwa 美濃の不破(ふわ)
Echizen no Arachi 越前の愛発(あらち)

..... and then one more

Out of Kyoto and into the "Eastern Countries"
located on the Tokaido road, Otsu:
Oosaka no seki 逢坂の関
Osaka no seki - The Osaka Barrier.



. shukuba 宿場 post station, postal station .
Edo shishuku 江戸四宿 The four most important SHUKUBA out of Edo
- - - . hatago (旅籠, 旅篭) lodgings .


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.. 北国路 Kitakuni Northern Japan

会津通り Aizu doori
三国街道 Mikuni Kaido
北国街道 Kitakuni Kaido
北陸道 Hokurikudo Hokurikudō

飛騨街道 Hida Kaido
. Hida no Takumi Kaido 飛騨の匠街道 .

野麦街道 Nomugi Kaido
郡上街道 Gujo Kaido . Gujoo Kaidoo
白川街道 Shirakawa Kaido
塩硝街道 Ensho Kaido
美濃街道 Mino Kaido
上保街道 Kamiho Kaido

Matsumaedō, Matsumaedoo 松前道

. 千国街道 Chikuni Kaido  
"salt road" 塩の道 shio no michi


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..近畿路 Kinki

. Kyoo Kaidoo 京街道 Kyōkaidō - Kyo Kaido (Kyoto Kaido) .
(linking Kyoto and Osaka),
- and - roads leading to Kyoto, including
Osaka Kaido 大阪街道 Ōsaka Kaidō
Fushimi Kaido 伏見街道 Fushimi Kaidoo
Toba Kaido 鳥羽街道 Toba Kaidoo

. Tango Chirimen Kaidoo 丹後 縮緬街道 Silk crepe road .

西近江路 Nishi Omi ji
若狭路 Wakasaji
周山街道 Shusan Kaido - Shuuzan Kaidoo
丹波路 Tanbaji
奈良街道 Nara Kaido
. 柳生街道 Yagyu Kaido - Nara .
伊賀街道 Iga Kaido
山の辺の道 Yamanobe no michi
竹内街道 Takenouchi Kaido
初瀬街道 Hase Kaido
大和街道 Yamato Kaido, Yamato no Kodō
紀州街道 Kishu Kaido

. Kumano Kaido 熊野街道 Roads to Kumano .
熊野街道・大辺路 Kumano Kaido Ohechi
熊野街道・中辺路 Kumano Kaido Nakahechi
高野街道 Koya Kaido (Kooya) - Kōya Kaidō


. Saya Kaidoo 佐屋街道 The Saya Road .
from Atsuta Shrine, Nagoya, to Kuwana


Shita Kaidoo 下街道 "Lower Kaido Road" in Gifu, an OFF road from the Nakasendo.
- - - - - part of the Road to Temple Zenkooji 善光寺街道 -
from Nagoya via Kasugai 春日井, Tajimi 多治見, Mizunami 瑞浪 to Ena 恵那市.
(about 57 km)
善光寺道、釜戸筋、内津道、名古屋道、伊勢道 are other names.

(There are other roads called "shita kaido" in Japan.)


Shimo kaidoo しもかいどう / 下街道 in Nara
From 大和国 - 高田 to 五條.

. Saba Kaido 鯖街道 Mackerel Road  

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.. Chuugoku 中国路 Chugoku

西国街道 Saikoku Kaido - Saigoku Kaidō

(唐街道・山崎通り) Kara Kaido - Yamazaki doori
山陽道 Sanyodo San'yōdō
山陰道 Sanindo San'indō
篠山街道 Sasayama Kaido

. 智頭街道 Chizu Kaido  

伯耆往来 Hooki Orai
東城往来 Tojo Orai
北浦街道 Kitaura Kaido
石見街道 Iwami Kaido
. Iwami Ginzan Kaidoo 石見銀山街道 .

出雲往来石見・安芸 Izumo Orai Iwami Aki
出雲往来美作・播磨 Izumo Orai Misaku Harima

. Izumo Kaido 出雲街道
The Old Trade Road of Izumo
 

因幡街道 Inaba Kaido
from Himeji to Tottori, with 11 shuku 宿

若桜街道 Wakasa Kaido
from Tottori to Wakasa
- - - 若桜宿 Wakasa juku, 鳥取県八頭郡若桜町

. Hirata momen kaido 平田の木綿街道 Hirata Cotton Road .
Shimane

. Sakushu Kaido 作州街道  

. かぐら街道 Kagura Kaido  


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..四国路 Shikoku

Nankaidoo Nankaidō 南海道 Nankaido "Southern Sea Road"
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


撫養街道 Muya Kaido
川北街道 Kawakita Kaido
伊予街道 Iyo Kaido

- - - - - Tosa Kaidō
土佐(北)街道 Tosa Kaido North
土佐(東)海道 Tosa Kaido East

野根山越え None Yamagoe
丸亀街道 Marugame Kaido
高松街道 Takamatsu Kaido
高松(丸亀)街道 Takamatsu Marugame Kaido
多度津街道 Tadotsu Kaido

. 志度街道 Shido Kaido .
Higashi Sanuki Hama Kaido 東讃浜街道
Hama Kaido 浜街道 Road along the Beach or 東下道

長尾街道 Nagao Kaido
讃岐街道 Sanuki Kaido
小松街道 Komatsu Kaido
今治街道 Imabari Kaido
大洲街道 Ozu Kaido - Oozu Kaidoo
宇和島街道 Uwajima Kaido
宿毛街道 Sukumo Kaido
松山街道 Matsuyama Kaido
中村街道 Nakamura Kaido
梼原街道 Yusuhara Kaido

淡路街道 Awaji Kaido , one of the five Awa Kaido 阿波五街道

. Shimanami Kaido しまなみ街道   
from Honshu to Shikoku


Dappan Michi, dappan no michi, Dappandoo 脱藩道
Taken by Sakamoto Ryoma in 1862


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..九州路 Kyushu

Saikaidō, Saikaidoo 西海道 Saikaido "Western Sea Circuit"
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

長崎街道 Nagasaki Kaido - Nagasaki Kaidō
唐津街道 Karatsu Kaido
薩摩街道 Satsuma Kaido
日向街道 Hyuga Kaido (Hyuuga)

. 島原街道 Shimabara Kaido .
..... and
Uki Kaido 有喜街

日田往還 Hida Okan (Funai)
豊後街道 Bungo Kaido
人吉街道 Hitoyoshi Kaido


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Reference : 日本の街道

絹の道 - Kinu no michi - Silk Road
source : yumi no tabi

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. Choosenjin Kaidoo 朝鮮人街道 
Road of the Korean Ambassadors
 
The road led from Korea via Kyushu along the inland sea to Kyoto.


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藤棚を潜れば 王子街道哉
fujidana o kugureba ooji kaido kana

passing through
wisteria trellises
to the Oji Road
Kobayashi Issa

. Wisteria and Haiku  

From Akabane, Edo to the temple Zensho-Ji (Zenshooji 善性寺) in Negishi, Arakawa ward.


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Hakata Men Kaido 博多めん街道 Hakata Noodle Street
だるま(博多めん街道) Shop called DARUMA


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External LINKS

街道文庫 街道歩き相談承り処
品川区北品川2、TEL 03-5462-0267
by 田中義巳 Tanaka Yoshimi
- Reference -


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shinkoo no michi 信仰の道 roads of faith
There are many famous pilgrimages in Japan.


. Junrei 巡礼  pilgrimage .


. Henro pilgrims in Shikoku 四国お遍路さん .


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INDEX for my trips in Japan


Read my Haiku Archives

My Daruma Museum Japan
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5 comments:

Anonymous said...

nippon zekkei kaidoo
von canon

ニッポン絶景街道
http://www.bs-asahi.co.jp/zekkei/
.

Gabi Greve - Darumapedia said...

Doochuu bugyoo 道中奉行 - Dochu Bugyo

- responsible for controlling the five routes out of Edo (Gokaido), their branch routes and related matters

and more bugyō of Edo
.

Gabi Greve - Darumapedia said...

Doochuu bugyoo 道中奉行 - Dochu Bugyo

- responsible for controlling the five routes out of Edo (Gokaido), their branch routes and related matters

and more bugyō of Edo
.

Gabi Greve - Darumapedia said...

Kasugai shi 春日井市 Kasugai town
is a city located in Aichi Prefecture, north of the Nagoya metropolis..

and more about
kasugai 鎹 / かすがい clamp, cramp, cleat, staple
.

Gabi Greve - Darumapedia said...

江戸六地蔵 Edo Roku Jizo
Temples on the six exit roads out of Edo, to pray for safety on the road.
.
https://gokurakuparadies.blogspot.jp/2015/06/jizo-pilgrims-introduction.html
.